The central role that Islam plays in the lives of adherent Muslims throughout the world calls for more spiritually oriented methods of approaching psychological treatment with this group. This article explores the psychology of Islam with respect to human behavior, pathology, health, and spirituality. A general therapeutic framework of psychological intervention within an Islamic context is offered. Within the model, practical interventions are suggested that are consistent with the Islamic views of the varying elements of the human being. There is also a discussion of culture, assessment, and rapport-building considerations unique to the treatment of Muslim populations. This model is offered as a framework to be considered by clinicians working with Muslims.